Turkish Air Force

Air warfare branch of Turkey's armed forces

Turkish Air Force
Türk Hava Kuvvetleri
Seal of the Turkish Air Force.svg
Emblem of the Turkish Air Force
  • 23 April 1920 (Turkish Air Force Branch)[1]
  • 31 January 1944 (Turkish Air Force Command, corps scale) [2]
  • 1 July 1949 (Turkish Air Force Command, army scale) [3]
Country Turkey
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Size50,000 personnel[4]
1,248 aircraft[5][6][7][8]
308 Fighter aircraft[9]
185 Unmanned aerial vehicles[10]
46 Bombers
80 Military transport aircraft
312 Trainer aircraft[5]
600 Helicopters
120 Attack helicopters[7][11]
Part ofTurkish Armed Forces
ColoursGrey, White & Blue    
MarchTurkish Air Force March Play (help·info)
Anniversaries1 June[12]
EngagementsList of conflicts involving Turkey
Websitewww.hvkk.tsk.tr Edit this at Wikidata
Commander-in-ChiefPresident Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Minister of DefenceHulusi Akar
Chief of the General StaffGeneral Yaşar Güler
Air Force CommanderGeneral Hasan Küçükakyüz
Vice CommanderLieutenant General Turgut Atman
Chief of Air StaffLieutenant General İsmail Güneykaya
RoundelRoundel of Turkey.svg
Fin flashFlag of Turkey.svg
Flag of Turkish Air Force CommandFlag of Turkish Air Force Command.svg
Aviator badgeTuAF Aviation Badge.png
Aircraft flown
AttackAnka-S, TB2, Akıncı
ATR 72, B-737
ReconnaissanceBaykuş, Gözcü, Heron, IHA-X2, Keklik, Malazgirt, Martı, Şimşek, TB1, Turna, Vestel Karayel
TrainerF-5F, Hürkuş, SF-260, T-38, KT-1, PAC MFI-17 Mushshak
TransportA400M, C-130, C-160, CH-47, CN-235, KC-135
TankerBoeing KC-135 Stratotanker
Military unit
Turkish Air Force
Flag of Turkish Air Force Command.svg
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  • e
Turkish Armed Forces
Standard of General staff of Turkish Armed Forces.svg
Special Forces
Member of
Current overseas deployments and missions
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  • e

The Turkish Air Force (Turkish: Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. The Turkish Air Force can trace its origins back to June 1911 when it was founded by the Ottoman Empire,[13] however, the air force as it is known today did not come into existence until 1923 with the creation of the Republic of Turkey.[14] It is considered to be the third largest airforce in NATO.[15]

In 1998, the Turkish Armed Forces announced a program of modernization worth US$160 billion over a twenty-year period in various projects.[16] $45 billion was earmarked to go to the overhaul of the Turkish Air Force, and includes commissioning new combat aircraft (consisting of multi-role and fifth generation stealth fighters) and helicopters (consisting of heavy lift, attack, medium lift and light general purpose helicopters).[17]

According to Flight International (Flightglobal.com) and the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Turkish Air Force has an active strength of 50,000 military personnel and operates approximately 1,248 manned aircraft (2020).

The world's first black pilot Ahmet Ali Çelikten and first female fighter pilot Sabiha Gökçen both served in the TAF.[18][19][20]


Initial stages

The history of Ottoman military aviation dates back to between June 1909[21] and July 1911.[22] In 1911 the former commander of the Action Army Mahmud Sevket Pasa achieved to send some Turkish military officers to the French Bleriot aviation school.[23] The same year the establishment of a Turkish airforce was taken into consideration.[23] During the Italian Turkish war of 1911, the Ottomans had to admit their disadvantage of not possessing an air force.[24] Subsequently the Ottomans employed German and French engineers who helped them to establish an air force with a dozen airplanes.[25] The Ottoman Aviation Squadrons participated in the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) and World War I (1914–1918).[1][26] The fleet size reached its apex in December 1916, when the Ottoman Aviation Squadrons had 90 active combat aircraft. Some early help for the Ottoman Aviation Squadrons came from the Imperial German Fliegertruppe (known by that name before October 1916), with future Central Powers 13-victory flying ace Hans-Joachim Buddecke flying with the Turks early in World War I as just one example.[27] The General Inspectorate of Air Forces (Kuva-yı Havaiye Müfettiş-i Umumiliği) By July 1918, the Aviation Squadrons were reorganized as the General Inspectorate of Air Forces.[1]

After the Armistice of Mudros and the occupation of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in 1919, some Turkish aviators tried to build new units in Istanbul, İzmir, Konya, Elazığ and Diyarbakır with planes left over from World War I and tried to bring together flight personnel.[1] During the Turkish War of Independence, Turkish pilots joined the Konya Air Station (Konya Hava İstasyonu). With the formation of the Grand National Assembly (GNA) by Mustafa Kemal and his colleagues on April 23, 1920, in Ankara, and the reorganization of the army, the Branch of Air Forces (Kuva-yı Havaiye Şubesi) was established under the Office of War (Harbiye Dairesi) of the GNA.[1] A few damaged aircraft belonging to the GNA were repaired, and afterwards used in combat.

In July 1922, it was reorganized as the Inspectorate of Air Forces (Kuva-yı Havaiye Müfettişliği) at Konya.[1][28]

Inspectorate of Air Forces

After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923, plans were made to form a modern air force. Originally consisting of three normal and one naval aviation units, and an air school, the number of units was increased to 10 normal and three naval aviation units.[29] Starting in 1924, personnel were sent abroad for flight education.[29] In 1925, the Air School was re-established in Eskişehir and its first students graduated that same year.[29] The Inspectorate of Air Forces was reorganized as the Undersecretariat of the Ministry of Defense in 1928 and new schools were found for non-pilot personnel.[29] Some personnel were sent to the United Kingdom and France for training; others were sent to the United States and Italy in 1930.[29]

From 1932, the air regiments were considered to be a separate combat arm and started training its own personnel.[29] Turkish aviators wore blue uniforms from 1933.[29]

Sabiha Gökçen became the first female fighter pilot in military history in 1937.[30] Another key event in 1937 was the establishment of the Air War College (Hava Harp Akademisi).[29]

Air Force Command

By 1940, Turkish air brigades had more than 500 combat aircraft in its inventory, becoming the largest air force in the Balkans and the Middle East.[29] The growing inventory of air brigades required another structural change, which was made in 1940.[29] The Air Undersecretariat under the Ministry of National Defense for logistical affairs and the General Staff for educational affairs were united to form the Air Force Command (Hava Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı) in 1944.[29] Thus, the Air Force became a separate branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.[31] The first Commander of the Turkish Air Force was General Zeki Doğan.[31] Turkey did not enter World War II on the side of the Allies until February 1945. However, the Turkish Armed Forces went on full alert and were prepared for war following the military alliance between neighbouring Bulgaria and the Axis Powers which was formalized in March 1941, and the occupation of neighbouring Greece by the Axis Powers in April 1941. Within a year, Turkey's borders were surrounded by German forces in the northwest and west, and Italian forces in the southwest. The Turkish Air Force made daily reconnaissance flights over Bulgaria, Greece, the Greek Islands in the Aegean Sea, and the Dodecanese Islands which then belonged to Italy, to monitor the positions of the Axis forces. The large cities in western Turkey were darkened at nights, and anti-aircraft guns and searchlights were deployed for defence against possible enemy planes. Almost all available money in the Turkish Government Treasury was used to purchase new weapons from any available provider in the world. The Turkish Air Force received large numbers of new aircraft in this period, including Supermarine Spitfire Mk.I/V/IX/XIX, Curtiss Falcon CW-22R/B, Fairey Battle-I, Avro Anson-I, Hawker Hurricane I/II, Morane-Saulnier M.S.406, Curtiss P-40 Tomahawk, Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk, Westland Lysander-I, Consolidated B-24D Liberator B-24, Bristol Blenheim IV/V, Bristol Beaufort, Bristol Beaufighter Mk.I/X, Focke-Wulf Fw 190-A3, Martin 187 Baltimore, De Havilland DH.98 Mosquito Mk.III/IV, Douglas B-26B/C Invader, P-47D Thunderbolt and Douglas C-47A/B Dakota.

The Air Machinist School (Hava Makinist Okulu) was reorganized as Aircraft Maintenance School (Hava Uçak Bakım Okulu) on 2 January 1950[32] to unite schools responsible for training non-pilot Air Force personnel.[31] In 1950 it also was decided to upgrade the Air Force fleet through the inclusion of jets.[31] Eight pilots were sent to the United States for jet pilot training.[31] They graduated in 1951 and started training jet pilots in the Turkish Air Force.[31] In the same year, the 9th Fighter Wing (9uncu Ana Jet Üssü) was founded in Balıkesir as Turkey's first fighter wing; the 191st, 192nd, and 193rd squadrons being the first ones which were established.[31] Further training in the United States followed, usually involving jet manufacturers. In 1951 the Air Force Academy was formed with integrating some air schools in Eskişehir and its first academic year started on 1 October 1951.[33] In 1956 the Hava Eğitim Kolordu Komutanlığı (Air Education Corps Command) was founded and all education was united under this command. The command was renamed as Hava Eğitim Komutanlığı (Air Education Command) in 1957.[31]

Upon Turkey's membership to NATO in 1952, the process of modernization was accelerated.[31] In 1962 the Taktik Hava Kuvveti (Tactical Air Force) was founded by upgrading the Hava Tümeni (Air Division) units to corps-level organizations. In 1974 the Air Force was employed in the Cyprus War.[31] With the arrival of 3rd generation fighter jets in 1980, the Air Force was reorganized.[31]

Turkish Air Force and NATO

The headquarters of NATO's Allied Air Component Command for Southern Europe (formerly designated as AIRSOUTH and originally headquartered in Naples, Italy) was established in İzmir, Turkey, on 11 August 2004. Allied Air Command İzmir was deactivated on 1 June 2013, when the Allied Air Command (AIRCOM) at the Ramstein Air Base in Germany became the sole Allied Air Component Command of NATO.[34]

Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.[35] A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO.[36] As of 2010[update], the United States is considering withdrawing these nuclear bombs from Turkey, and from several other foreign locations in Europe.[37]

Notable events

  • In 1925, the Air Force was deployed to take part in a campaign aimed to suppress the Sheikh Said rebellion.[38]
  • Sabiha Gökçen was the first Turkish female combat pilot. She joined the Turkish Air Force in 1936 and in 1937 took part in the military operation to put down the Dersim Revolt, thus becoming the world's first female air force pilot with battle experience. Throughout her career in the Turkish Air Force, which lasted until 1964, Gökçen flew 22 different types of aircraft for more than 8000 hours, 32 of which were active combat and bombardment missions.[39] She was selected as the only female pilot for the poster of "The 20 Greatest Aviators in History" published by the United States Air Force in 1996.[39]
  • In 1995, the Turkish Air Force took part in NATO's Operation Deliberate Force.
  • Turkey provided 18 F-16s for the NATO campaign against Serbia during Operation Allied Force in 1999. Of these, 11 TAI-built F-16s were stationed at the NATO base in Aviano, Italy, while the other 7 were based in Ankara, Turkey. All were equipped with laser-guided bombs using the LANTIRN night vision system. Turkish jets had previously patrolled Balkan airspace, providing protection for attacking aircraft. During this allied air campaign, TAI-built F-16s set a world CAP record by patrolling for 9 hours and 22 minutes above the Balkan theatre. Normally, CAP missions last between 3 and 4 hours.[citation needed]
  • On 8 October 1996 – 7 months after the escalation of the dispute with Turkey over the Imia/Kardak islands, a Greek Mirage 2000 fired an R.550 Magic II missile and shot down a Turkish F-16D[40] over the Aegean Sea. The Turkish pilot died, while the co-pilot ejected and was rescued by Greek forces.[41] In August 2012, after the downing of a RF-4E on the Syrian Coast, Turkish Defence Minister İsmet Yılmaz confirmed that the Turkish F-16D was shot down by a Greek Mirage 2000 with an R.550 Magic II in 1996 after reportedly violating Greek airspace near Chios island.[42] Greece denies that the F-16 was shot down.[43] Both Mirage 2000 pilots reported that the F-16 caught fire and they saw one parachute.[44]
  • Turkey participated in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina, employing two squadrons (one in the Ghedi fighter wing, and after 2000 one in the Aviano fighter wing).[31] They returned to Turkey in 2001.
  • In 2006, 4 Turkish F-16 fighter jets were deployed for NATO's Baltic Air Policing operation.
  • In December 2007, the Turkish Air Force initiated Operation Northern Iraq, which continued until the end of February 2008, eventually becoming a part of Operation Sun. At the initial phase of this operation, on December 16, 2007, the TuAF used the AGM-65 Maverick and AGM-142 Popeye/Have Nap during a night bombardment for the first time.[citation needed]
  • On 22 June 2012, a Turkish RF-4E Phantom II reconnaissance aircraft was lost, reportedly due to Syrian anti-aircraft fire. The incident happened over the Mediterranean Sea, close to the town of Ras al-Bassit.[45]
  • On September 16, 2013, Turkish jets shot down a Syrian Mi-17 helicopter on the Syrian-Turkish border.[46]
  • On 23 March 2014, Turkish fighter jets shot down a Syrian MiG-23. The Syrian Arab Republic claims that its aircraft was in Syrian airspace on a mission to attack rebel held areas in the city of Latakia when it was shot down by Turkey in an act of "blatant aggression." The Syrian pilot successfully ejected from the aircraft.[47] Turkish Prime Minister Erdoğan stated that Turkish F-16s shot down the aircraft for violating Turkish airspace and said that the Turkish "response will be heavy if you violate our airspace."[48]
  • On 24 November 2015, a Turkish F-16 shot down a Russian Su-24 Fencer strike aircraft which, according to Turkish authorities, had violated its airspace. The Russian Government contests those claims, stating that the aircraft never entered Turkish airspace. One Russian pilot was killed, the other rescued in a Russian special forces operation.[49][50]
  • Following a failed coup attempt in 2016 and subsequent purges, more than 300 pilots were dismissed from the air force, including the pilot that shot down the Su-24 Fencer a year earlier.[51] This resulted in the TAF struggling to keep its F-16 fleet combat ready. The Turkish government started looking overseas to make up the shortfall.[52]


Fighter and reconnaissance aircraft

In 1984 Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) was established and Turkey started to produce fighter aircraft locally under license, including a total of 232 F-16 Fighting Falcon (Block 30/40/50) aircraft for the air force. The air force had previously received 8 F-16s that were purchased directly from the United States, bringing the total number of F-16s received by the air force to 245.[53] TAI in 2007 built 30 F-16 block 50+ for the airforce[54][55] And applied CCIP modernization program to 117 its block 40 & 50 F-16s, bringing 117 of the block 40/50 F-16s to a block 50+ configuration[56][57] Dozens of TAI-built F-16s were also exported to other countries, particularly in the Middle East. A total of 46 TAI-built F-16s have been exported to the Egyptian Air Force under the Peace Vector IV Program (1993–1995), making it TAI's second-largest F-16 customer after the Turkish Air Force.[58] Turkey is one of only five countries in the world which locally produce the F-16 Fighting Falcon.[53]

On July 11, 2002 Turkey became a Level 3 partner of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) development program, and on January 25, 2007, Turkey officially joined the production phase of the JSF program, agreeing to initially purchase 116 F-35A Lightning II aircraft.[59][60][61][62][63] Turkey placed an order for 6 F-35 Lightning II's with four delivered to Luke Air Force Base.[64] In June 2018 the US Senate passed a defense spending bill prevents the Turkish Air Force from obtaining the F-35 stealth fighter due to the country's acquisition of the S-400 SAM systems from Russia.[65] Tensions between the US and Turkey are to blame for the cancelled contract, and now may put Turkey in a position to become the first customer for Russia's Su-57.[66] Turkey also has a national fifth generation fighter aircraft project named the TAI TFX.

Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft

A total of four Boeing 737 AEW&C Peace Eagle (Turkish: Barış Kartalı) aircraft (together with ground support systems) were ordered by the Turkish Air Force, with an option for two more aircraft. Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) is the primary subcontractor for the Peace Eagle parts production, aircraft modification, assembly and tests. Another subcontractor, HAVELSAN, is responsible for system analysis and software support.[67]

Signed on 23 July 2003, the contract to Boeing valued at US$1.385 billion, which was later reduced by US$59 million because some of the requirements were not met. The down payment to Boeing amounted to US$637 million. The project consists of the delivery of 737-700 airframes, ground radars and control systems, ground control segments for mission crew training, mission support and maintenance support.[68]

Peace Eagle 1 is modified and tested by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems in Seattle, Washington, USA. Peace Eagle 2, 3 and 4 are modified and tested at the facilities of TAI in Ankara, Turkey, with the participation of Boeing and a number of Turkish companies. As of 2006, the four Peace Eagle airplanes were scheduled to be delivered in 2008.[69] As of mid-2007, systems integration was ongoing and airworthiness certification works continued. In September 2007, Boeing completed the first test flight of Turkey's AEW&C 737.[70]

On 4 June 2008, it was announced that Turkish Aerospace Industries completed the first in-country modification of a Boeing 737-700 into an airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) platform for Turkey's Peace Eagle program.[71]

The first Peace Eagle aircraft, named Kuzey (meaning North) was formally accepted into Turkish Air Force inventory on 21 February 2014.[72][73][74][75] The remaining three aircraft will be named Güney (South), Doğu (East) and Batı (West).[75]

The six-year delay was a result of Boeing experiencing difficulties while developing some features required by the Turkish Air Force. Turkey demanded compensation of US$183 million from Boeing for the delay. The payment of the penalty is requested in the form of increased start-up support period from an initially planned two years to five years, as well as three years of software maintenance service and around US$32 million in spare parts.[68]

Aerial refueling tanker aircraft

Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker (code 62–3567) of the Turkish Air Force arrives at the 2016 Royal International Air Tattoo, England

In 1994 the Turkish Air Force signed a deal to lease two and purchase seven Boeing KC-135R Stratotanker aerial refueling tanker aircraft.[76] Following the arrival of all seven purchased aircraft, the two leased KC-135Rs were returned to the United States.[76] All seven KC-135R Stratotanker aircraft of the Turkish Air Force have received the Pacer CRAG (Compass, Radar And GPS) upgrade. The KC-135R-CRAG Stratotanker aerial refueling tanker aircraft of the Turkish Air Force are operated by the 101st Squadron, stationed at the Incirlik Air Base.[76]

Military transport aircraft

Turkey is a partner nation in the Airbus A400M Atlas production program. The Turkish Air Force has ordered a total of ten A400M Atlas aircraft.[77] The first two A400M Atlas were delivered to the Turkish Air Force in 2014.[78][79][80] All A400M Atlas deliveries to the Turkish Air Force are scheduled to be completed by 2018.[81][82] Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) produces several components of the A400M Atlas, including the middle-front fuselage, emergency exit doors, rear fuselage upper panels, rear upper escape doors, ailerons and spoilers; which are sent to the Airbus Military factory in Spain for assembly.[83]

Although the Airbus A400M Atlas is essentially a heavy tactical lift aircraft, it can also be transformed into an aerial refueling tanker aircraft at short notice.

The Turkish Air Force also uses the CASA CN-235, C-130 Hercules and C-160 Transall military transport aircraft.

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

Baykar Akıncı UCAV can be armed with the SOM cruise missile

At present, the Turkish Air Force operates MALE UAVs such as the TAI Anka, Bayraktar TB2 and the IAI Heron. Having been unable to purchase the armed version of Predator UCAVs from the United States, Turkey has fitted these drones with indigenous MAM series munitions.[84][85][86] Turkish Armed Forces currently stands as one of the top countries that uses UCAVs in combat effectively.[87][88] TAI was once the leading partner in the Talarion UCAV project of EADS.[89][90]


Turkish Air Force operate an intelligence satellite named Göktürk-2, with plans to commission more in years ahead. These include a 0.8m resolution reconnaissance satellite (Project Göktürk-1) for use by the Turkish Armed Forces and a 2m resolution reconnaissance satellite (Project Göktürk-2) for use by the National Intelligence Organization. The production of Göktürk-2 is completed by the Turkish Aerospace Industries, while Göktürk-1 is still in the production stage. Some electro-optical parts that are required for the Göktürk-1 (0.8m resolution) satellite were beyond TAI's technological know-how, thus a foreign partner was sought. The official bidders for the project were EADS Astrium (U.K.), OHB-System (Germany) and Telespazio (Italy);[91] and the contract was won by Telespazio of Italy.[92]

Göktürk-2 was launched from Jiuquan Launch Area 4 / SLS-2 in China by a Long March 2D space launch vehicle at 16:12:52 UTC on December 18, 2012. It was placed into a low Earth orbit of 686 km (426 mi) at 16:26 UTC. The first signal from Göktürk-2 was received at 17:39 UTC by the Tromsø Satellite Station, northern Norway.

In 2013 Turkey approved the construction by Roketsan of its first satellite launching center, initially for low earth orbit satellites.[93]

In 2015, Turkey and Ukraine signed a space program cooperation agreement worth billions of dollars.[94]

On January 8, 2021, Turkey launched the Türksat 5A satellite, greatly extending the range of drone operations from the West of Europe to the east of Kazakhstan, with more resistance against jamming, rejection and wiretapping; high-definition live streams of targets and commanding of munitions drops.[95][96]

Formation and structure

F-4E 2020 Terminator at the 3rd Air Force Base in Konya
F-16DJ of 192nd Tiger Squadron
TAI TF-X, a twin-engined 5th generation air superiority fighter, is currently being produced by Turkish Aerospace Industries, with a planned roll-out date of March 18, 2023.[97][98][99]
SOM-J cruise missile developed by TÜBİTAK SAGE and Roketsan is designed to fit the internal weapons bay of the F-35 and TAI TF-X.
Baykar Kızılelma (MIUS) UCAV's runway tests began on November 20, 2022.[100][101] Its take-off and low altitude flight tests began on December 3, 2022,[102] and its maiden flight was successfully completed on December 14, 2022.[103]

For a long period, the combat units of the Turkish Air Force were organized into a 1st Air Force (deployed in the western part of the country and headquartered in Eskişehir) and a 2nd Air Force (deployed in the eastern part of the country and headquartered in Diyarbakır). On August 5, 2014, the two have been fused into the newly formed Combatant Air Force and Air Defence Command with headquarters in Eskişehir.[104] Due to its involvement in the coup d'état attempt on July 15, 2016, the 4th Main Jet Air Base Command near Ankara was disbanded and its F-16s were dispersed to other bases.

Air Force Command HQ (Hava Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı Karargâhı) (Ankara)

  • Combatant Air Force and Air Missile Defense Command (Muharip Hava Kuvveti ve Hava Füze Savunma Komutanlığı) (Eskişehir)
    • 1st Main Jet Base Command (1. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı) (Eskişehir)
      • 111th Squadron "Panther" (111. Filo "Panter") - F-4E 2020T Terminator (last operational F-4 unit)
      • 112th Squadron "Devil" (112. Filo "Şeytan") (temporarily disbanded in anticipation of F-35As[105])
      • 113th Squadron "Gazelle" (113. Filo "Ceylan") - F-16C/D Block 30/50 Fighting Falcon[106][107][108] (SNIPER and DB.110 recon pods-specialised. The former 113th Squadron "Light" ("Işık") flying RF-4E has been disbanded in 2014,[109] but the disbandment of the 4th Main Jet Base in Ankara-Akıncı has resulted in the relocation and rebadging of its reconnaissance 142nd Squadron "Gazelle" (142. Filo Ceylan) to Eskişehir[110])
      • 401st Test Squadron (401. Test Filosu) - F-16C/D Block 30/40, F-4E 2020 (weapons testing and evaluation squadron, took over this role from the 132nd Squadron[111])
      • 201st Liaison and SAR Squadron "Attack" (201. İrtibat ve Arama-Kurtarma Filosu "Atak") - CN-235M-100, AS-532UL Mk.1
    • 3rd Main Jet Base Command (3. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı) (Konya)
      • 131st Squadron "Dragon" (131. Filo "Ejder") - B-737-7ES AEW&C (AEW squadron)
      • 132nd Squadron "Dagger" (132. Filo "Hançer") - F-16C/D Block 50 Fighting Falcon (in 2014 the unit has been designated as a weapons and tactics training squadron.[112] However, after the 2016 restructuring of the TuAF units this might has changed, as the Turkish DHA news agency has reported, that 12 F-16s of the squadron have participated in bombing missions in Northern Syria as part of Operation Olive Branch in January 2018.[113])
      • 133rd Aerobatic Squadron "Turkish Stars" (133. Akrotim Filo "Türk Yıldızları") - NF-5A/B 2000 Freedom Fighter
      • 135th Liaison and SAR Squadron "Fire" (135. İrtibat ve Arama-Kurtarma Filosu "Ateş") - AS-532UL Mk.1+
    • 5th Main Jet Base Command (5. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı) (Merzifon)
      • 151st Squadron "Bronze" (151. Filo "Tunç")[106][114][115][116] - F-16C/D Block 40/50 Fighting Falcon (HARM-specialised)
      • 152nd Squadron "Raider" (152. Filo "Akıncı") - F-16C/D Block 40 Fighting Falcon[117] (relocated to Incirlik Air Base to free facilities at Merzifon for the relocation of 4th Main Jet Base's 143rd Squadron from Ankara-Akıncı, but retained as part of 5th Main Jet Base Command)
      • 153rd Squadron "Forefather" (153. Filo "Öncel") - F-16C/D Block 30/40 Fighting Falcon (F-16 OCU, the former 4th Main Jet Base's (in Ankara-Akıncı) 143rd Squadron in the OCU role, relocated to Merzifon and rebadged as the 153rd.)
      • 5th Main Jet Base Command SAR Flight "Angel" (5. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı Arama-Kurtarma Kolu "Melek") - AS-532UL Mk.1+
    • 6th Main Jet Base Command (6. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı) (Bandırma)
      • 161st Squadron "Bat" (161. Filo "Yarasa") - F-16C/D Block 40/50+ Fighting Falcon (LANTIRN-specialised)
      • 162nd Squadron "Harpoon" (162. Filo "Zıpkın") - F-16C/D Block 40 Fighting Falcon
      • 6th Main Jet Base Command SAR Flight (6. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı Arama-Kurtarma Kolu) - AS-532UL Mk.1+
    • 7th Main Jet Base Command (7. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı) (Malatya-Erhaç)[118]
      • 171st Squadron "Corsair" (171. Filo "Korsan") (temporarily disbanded, to convert to F-35A)
      • 172nd Squadron "Hawk" (172. Filo "Şahin") (temporarily disbanded, to convert to F-35A)
      • 173rd Squadron "Dawn" (173. Filo "Şafak") (recon squadron, RF-4E/TM(G) phased out of service, to operate armed TAI Anka UAVs)
      • 7th Main Jet Base Command SAR Flight "Burak" (7. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı Arama-Kurtarma Kolu "Burak") - AS-532UL Mk.1+
    • 8th Main Jet Base Group Command (8. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı) (Diyarbakır)
      • 181st Squadron "Leopard" (181. Filo "Pars") - F-16C/D Block 40TM/Block 50+ Fighting Falcon (LANTIRN-specialised)
      • 182nd Squadron "Accipiter" (182. Filo "Atmaca") - F-16C/D Block 40 Fighting Falcon
      • 202nd Liaison and SAR Squadron "East" (202. İrtibat ve Arama-Kurtarma Filosu "Şark") - CN-235M-100, AS-532UL Mk.1+
    • 9th Main Jet Base Command (9. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı) (Balıkesir)
      • 191st Squadron "Cobra" (191. Filo "Kobra") - F-16C/D Block 50 Fighting Falcon
      • 192nd Squadron "Tiger" (192. Filo "Kaplan") - F-16C/D Block 50+ Fighting Falcon[119]
      • 9th Main Jet Base Command SAR Flight (9. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı Arama-Kurtarma Kolu) - AS-532UL Cougar Mk.1+
    • 10th Tanker Base Command (10. Tanker Üs Komutanlığı) (Incirlik)
      • 101st Tanker Squadron "Asena" (101. Tanker Filosu "Asena") - KC-135R Stratotanker
    • 14th UAV Systems Base Command (14. İnsansız Uçak Sistemleri Üs Komutanlığı) (Batman)
      • TAI Anka, IAI Heron, Karayel, Harpy, I-GNAT ER
    • Air Defence Command (Hava Savunma Komutanlığı)
    • 13 x Airfield Commands (reserve air bases) (Akhisar, Antalya, Batman, Dalaman, Erzurum, Afyon, Çorlu, Muş, Ağrı, Sivas, Sivrihisar, Van, Yalova)
  • Air Training Command (Hava Eğitim Komutanlığı) (İzmir)
    • 2nd Main Jet Base Command (2. Ana Jet Üs Komutanlığı) (Çiğli-İzmir)
      • 121st Squadron "Bee" (121. Filo "Arı") - T-38A Talon (advanced flying training)
      • 122nd Squadron "Scorpion" (122. Filo "Akrep") - KT-1T (basic flying training)
      • 123rd Squadron "Chick" (123. Filo "Palaz") - SF-260D ((initial flying training)
      • 124th Squadron "Pioneer" (124. Filo "Öncü") (borrows a/c from the other squadrons) (instructor training, standartidation and instrumental flying training)
      • 125th Squadron "Panther" (125. Filo "Panter") - CN-235M-100, UH-1H Iroquois (transport and helicopter training)
    • Air Training Command Liaison Squadron (Hava Eğitim Komutanlığı İrtibat Filosu) (İzmir-Adnan Menderes Airport)
      • 203rd SAR Squadron "Aegean" (203. Arama Kurtarma Filosu "Ege") - CN-235M-100
    • Air Warfare School (Hava Harp Okulu, the Air Force academy) (Yeşilköy-Istanbul)
      • Training Corps (Eğitim Kıtaatı)
        • Sparrow Flight (Serçe Kol) - T-41D Mescalero
      • Search and Rescue Flight (Arama-Kurtarma Kolu) - UH-1H Iroquois
      • Yalova Glider Camp (Yalova Planör Kampı) - SZD-50-3
    • Air Force Technical Schools Command (Hava Teknik Okullar Komutanlığı) (Gaziemir Air Base, İzmir)
    • Air Force NCO Schools Command (Hava Sınıf Okulları Komutanlığı) (Gaziemir Air Base, İzmir)
    • Air Force Basic Training Brigade Command (Hava Er Eğitim Tugay Komutanlığı) (Kütahya)
  • Air Logistical Command (Hava Lojistik Komutanlığı) (Etimesgut-Ankara)
    • 11th Air Transportation Main Base Command (11. Hava Ulaştırma Ana Üs Komutanlığı) (Etimesgut-Ankara)
      • 211th Squadron "Globetrotter" (211.Filo "Gezgin") - various CN-235 variants, including ELINT, EW, MedEvac and VIP
      • 212th Special Squadron "Eagle" (212. Özel Filo "Doğan") - A330, A319, Ce. 550/ Ce.560, Ce.650, G.IV-SP - government and high command executive fleet
    • 12th Air Transportation Main Base Command (12. Hava Ulaştırma Ana Üs Komutanlığı) (Erkilet-Kayseri)
      • 221st Squadron "Breeze" (221. Filo "Esen") - A-400M, C-160D)
      • 222nd Squadron "Flame" (222.Filo "Alev") - C-130B/E)
    • 1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command (1. Hava İkmal Bakım Merkezi Komutanlığı) (Eskişehir)
    • 2nd Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command (2. Hava İkmal Bakım Merkezi Komutanlığı) (Kayseri)
    • 3rd Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command (3. Hava İkmal Bakım Merkezi Komutanlığı) (Ankara)
    • Military Air Traffic Control Command (Hava Malzeme Transit Komutanlığı) (Istanbul)
    • Air Museum Command (Hava Kuvvetleri Müzesi) (Istanbul)


The above commands consist of:[14]


NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
 Turkish Air Force[124]
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Turkey-army-OF-10.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-9b.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-9a.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-8.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-7.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-6.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-5.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-4.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-3.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-2.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-1b.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-1a.svg Turkey-air-force-OF-(D).svg Various
Mareşal Genelkurmay başkanlığı Orgeneral Korgeneral Tümgeneral Tuğgeneral Albay Yarbay Binbaşı Yüzbaşı Üsteğmen Teğmen Asteğmen Harbiyeli
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Turkish Air Force[124]
  • v
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  • e
Turkey-air-force-OR-9.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-8.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-7b.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-7a.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-6b.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-6a.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-6b-1.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-5.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-4.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-3.svg Turkey-air-force-OR-2.svg No insignia
Astsubay kıdemli başçavuş Astsubay başçavuş Astsubay kıdemli üstçavuş Astsubay üstçavuş Astsubay kıdemli çavuş Astsubay çavuş Astsubay astçavuş Uzman çavuş Çavuş Uzman onbaşı Onbaşı Er
  • OF3, OF2, & OR2 translate to "Head of 1000", "Head of 100", and "Head of 10" respectively.

Future of the Turkish Air Force

TAI TF-X is a 5th generation air superiority fighter currently being developed by the Turkish Aerospace Industries.

In 2008, HAVELSAN of Turkey and Boeing of the United States were in the process of developing a next generation, high-altitude ballistic missile defence shield. It was envisaged that the system would be used by Turkey, the U.S. and other NATO members.[125][126][127]

In 2011, Turkey's Undersecretariat for Defense Industries (SSM), signed an agreement with TAI for the conceptual development of basic capabilities of a national fifth generation fighter aircraft project named the TAI TF-X[128][129] On June 30, 2021, the Turkish Air Force made an official presentation about the TF-X program to the press.[130]

On 28 March 2013, the Turkish Secretary of the Defence Industry of the Ministry of National Defence of Turkey Murat Bayar announced intentions to replace the F-16 fighter with domestically produced multi-role fighters by 2023.[17]

Following the agreement signed on 22 July 2018 between the Turkish Air Force and TAI, the program for developing an advanced jet trainer, TAI Hürjet, was initiated to replace the existing T-38 Talon aircraft. The Hürjet is expected to be operational by 2025.[131]

The CEO of the UAV-giant in Turkey, Baykar, announced that Turkey is developing an unmanned fighter jet and bomber, the Baykar Kızılelma (MIUS). The fighter is expected to make its first flight in 2023.[132]

See also

  • Aviation portal


  1. ^ Student officer insignia designates school grade rather than military seniority.


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  • Morgan, Eric B. & Burnet, Charles (December 1981 – March 1982). "Walrus... Amphibious Angel of Mercy". Air Enthusiast (17): 13–25. ISSN 0143-5450.

External links

  • Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from World Factbook (2022 ed.). CIA. (Archived 2004 edition)
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